The Hobbit pdf free download. The Hobbit is a tale of high adventure, undertaken by a company of dwarves, in search of dragon-guarded gold. A reluctant partner in this perilous quest is Bilbo Baggins, a comfort-loving, unambitious hobbit, who surprises even himself by his resourcefulness and his skill as a burglar.
Stone tools found at the site raise the possibility that hobbits had culture, even though LB1's brain size would make a chimpanzee sneer. H. floresiensis, the discovery team claimed, could be the first human example of island dwarfing. This phenomenon, thought to be evolution's response to limited resources, is known for other mammals, including dwarf elephants from Flores itself. But this is not the only possible conclusion. A long-awaited paper, which appeared online in Proceedings of the National Academies of Sciences of the United States of America (PNAS) on August 23, 2006, offers a radically different interpretation of these skeletal remains.
After complex negotiations, most of the bones were returned to Jakarta in February 2005. But the uproar revived when discovery team member Michael Morwood of the University of New England (Armidale, Australia) protested that LB1's pelvis was smashed and another hobbit's jaw was broken and repaired clumsily. Jacob responded that the bones were fine when they left his lab.
When the criticisms of Jacob and his collaborators were finally published in August 2006, they reiterated previous claims that the LB1 skull was unnaturally asymmetrical, showing signs of deformity. The paper also reported that many LB1 traits resemble those of Austromelanesians, and some are similar to Rampasasa pygmies living near the dig site at Liang Bua cave. Hobbits are probably related to them, the authors said, and therefore not a new species. Moreover, LB1 was microcephalic. The authors proffered specific anatomic details to establish their case. However, even when researchers agree on details of hobbit anatomy, it seems they can't agree on their meaning.
Take the chin. Chins mark a skeleton as sapiens; no other hominids have them. Everyone agrees that the two hobbit mandibles lack chins. But the PNAS paper asserts that appearing chinless does not necessarily mean that the hobbits were not H. sapiens. The paper included a photo of a live Rampasasa pygmy with what the authors termed a negative chin.
If chinlessness can't illuminate the discussion, what about teeth? Hobbit teeth are a strong reason to think they may not be a new species. Everyone agrees that compared with other hominids, which have big teeth, hobbit teeth are small, like sapiens teeth. Not only are they small, according to paleoanthropologist John Hawks of the University of Wisconsin (Madison, Wisconsin, United States), hobbit teeth are small in the sapiens pattern: first molars are biggest and third molars smallest. H. erectus and Australopiths have different patterns.
Robert Eckhardt of Pennsylvania State University (State College, Pennsylvania, United States), an author of the PNAS paper, argues that chance convergence of traits in different hominid lineages is unlikely to explain these similarities. Coauthor Etty Indriati, colleague of Jacob's at Gadjah Mada, notes that hobbit teeth also share features with Rampasasa pygmy teeth, such as rotation of the premolar, that imply genes in common.
A March 2005 paper in the journal Science, whose authors include a subset of the discovery team, reported that a virtual endocast of LB1's cranium, which has brain features imprinted on it, suggested that hobbits were not simply miniature versions of sapiens or erectus, but still may have had human-like thinking abilities because the prefrontal cortex and temporal lobes seemed expanded. The region, known as Brodmann area 10, is thought to be the seat of higher cognitive processes like memory, communication, and planning.
The original Nature paper had speculated that hobbits might have been a dwarfed descendant of H. erectus. H. erectus was near our size, huge compared with tiny LB1, and members of the discovery team have backed away from that notion. Argue and colleagues concur that H. erectus is an unlikely ancestor because of differences in cranial shape and limb proportions. William Jungers and Susan Larson of the State University at Stony Brook (New York, United States) have analyzed hobbit postcranial material at recent paleoanthropology meetings. They have found limb proportion convergences with Lucy, the most famous member of Australopithecus afarensis. Still, they say, shoulder characteristics more closely match early H. erectus.
At least a genetic link to H. erectus is not geographically outrageous. H. erectus had been in the region for nearly 2 million years; in fact, the type specimen was found more than a century ago on the Indonesian island of Java.What is a hobbit?
The debate over the hobbit brain has been fueled by stone tools found at the site. A commentary accompanying the original two papers suggested that some were like tools associated elsewhere with modern humans. This suggested to others that hobbits had a complex culture.
A team led by Adam Brumm of Australian National University has tried to show that hobbits were part of a line of Flores tool makers who had been chipping sharp flakes from stone for upwards of 700,000 years. The researchers based their analysis on more than 500 stone artifacts excavated at another Flores site 50 kilometers from Liang Bua and dated between 800,000 and 740,000 years ago. No erectus remains have been found on Flores so far, but paleoanthropologists assume they made and used the tools. The paper compared the very old tools with those found at Liang Bua and noted specific similarities.
DNA analysis might help, but prospects are gloomy. The site is hot and wet, perfect for destroying genetic material. There's been at least one effort to find DNA in hobbit bone, carried out in the lab of ancient DNA specialist Svante Pääbo of the Max Planck Institute (Leipzig, Germany). It failed.
So on present evidence, the debate about whether hobbits were a different kind of human or simply deformed can't be settled. It is even possible that both sides are partly right. Hobbits are so different from anything else in the hominid record that calling them a new human species is by no means crazy. But even some scientists who buy the new species argument think there may have been something wrong with LB1 and that the much-disputed brain is indeed abnormal.
Dalton wrote that the Liang Bua Cave controversy isnot rare, but in this case was unprecedented. Morwoodadded that the conflict between the paleoanthropologistsresulted in his team not being allowed to work at thehobbit work site, the Liang Bua Cave: 2b1af7f3a8